In the Tajik villages chance to finish school for girls is less
According to the Ministry of Education of Tajikistan, more than 50,000 girls in the past year have left the school after graduating from a mandatory ninth grade.
About 2000 graduates of Tajik schools continued their education at professional schools, enrolling in courses confectioners, seamstresses and nurses, but the vast majority of schoolgirls can not actually get a full secondary and higher education.
15% of school-age girls do not attend school.
Human rights activists say the sharp decline of literacy of the rural population, especially among girls.
Many dropouts schoolgirl early marriage. The fate of illiterate brides formed in different ways. Often, early marriage quickly break up and then an uneducated woman is left without means of livelihood.
"The problem is there. In the past, it was about 40% - 50%, now 85% of girls attend school. As 15% of schoolgirls who, for various reasons, excluded from the study, the Ministry of Education is working in this direction," - said Minister Education Abdudzhabor Rakhmonov.
During the civil war in Tajikistan in 1990 in rural areas, parents tried as soon as possible to give girls in marriage, to protect them from rape. However, after signing a peace agreement the situation of young brides and girls' education have not changed, despite efforts by authorities to actively intervene in family life of citizens.
Most of the girls suspended from school process, live in remote rural areas. Moreover, if the number of primary school pupils about the same, then in high school, said local teachers, girls are much less than boys. Often parents make the final decision about what her daughter after the compulsory ninth grade should drop out of school, preparing for an early marriage.
At the same time in the countryside are valued illiterate bride: they meekly, humbly and completely financially dependent on her husband's family.
Against the will of
Life story, who told 20-year-old Rukhshona common to all regions of Tajikistan. A young woman living in the east, in the Rasht valley - an area known for its patriarchal traditions.
"I was married against my will, by their parents. In our family decided to ask children's views. I wanted to learn, but everything turned out differently. After grade 9, I stopped going to school. A few years later I left my husband. He managed to marry a second time. And I was left with two young children in their arms. Whom shall I blame now? According to my parents, it's all due to the fact that I did not want to suffer "- tells Rukhshona.
Rukhshona not had time to get a full secondary education. After a divorce, a young woman thinking about further education, but lacked funds.
"The fact is that if a girl is getting married soon and she have children, then in the future, she is physically unable to continue their education. Lack of time and the psychological state of women is strongly influenced by her wishes," - says an employee of the UN Committee on Women Natasha Varchlok.
In his native village Rukhshona difficult to find work. Unemployed steel and uneducated women, and those who have a specialty, but can not find a job.
"The schools do not yet have all the conditions for learning. Everywhere, a shortage of teachers. In the district centers of power have control over school attendance, but in distant villages is difficult to keep track of those who come to school" - says the regional manager of the Aga Khan in Rasht Valley Mohammadi Sharipov.
With the disintegration of the family, mother and daughter may have-nots
"Men are mainly working in Russia. All the burdens of family life falls on the shoulders of women. Naturally, they do not physically have enough time to follow in due measure for children. Yes, and economic issues determine a lot. Sometimes the children have nothing to wear" - he adds.
Activist women's movement argue that parents are not always motivated by a desire to give daughters in marriage as soon as possible. Often in poor families with many children the parents must decide which of the children continue their education. The choice usually falls on the boys, who in the future, are expected to provide the family's needs. Many families are unable to provide education for all children. As for girls, it is believed that she would marry and care for its maintenance will take on the future husband or his family.
"Today we raise the question of political literacy of women, but in reality we must acknowledge that we are talking about basic literacy. In some remote villages, women can not write or read. They are not even familiar with the charter. Learning can not because it's not possible, do not have enough money. Kids have nothing to feed them nothing to wear. Husbands on earnings, and often they too can not help their families because of the crisis, "- says an activist of the Islamic Party of Tajikistan Rakhmonov Zarafamo.
Bride without groom
In the village of Karamkul Gissarkogo district aware of the problems of migration firsthand. In his native village of Aisha Huseynov many 30-year old unmarried women. Ayesha tells of the difficulties they face. Some of them do not stand up and commit suicide.
"Among the people there is a perception that if a girl under 25 years had never married, so it is somewhat to blame. Maybe ill or have other causes. Its starting to blame, point fingers. Or even worse - to reproach, lead the children in the sample which should not be. So do not stand up, sometimes, a girl and go to extreme measures. Were they educated or employed, it would be less problems. And that in fact most of these women and girls living with their families, which contain them, and sometimes it also reproach, "- says Aisha.
To get married all before
Early Marriage in Tajikistan has never been a rarity. However, if in Soviet times, this phenomenon tried to fight, now the authorities prefer not to intervene. The position of women deteriorated after the civil war in the country and the beginning of mass migration. Now age girls of marriageable age has dropped to 15-16. It is believed that a bride can lead to a new family and bring up as like the husband and his family.
"Since many young men migrate to find work, their counterparts in the homeland remain unmarried. This is a really big problem. Imagine a small village, and in one family is not one, but several girls of marriageable age. But no suitors. What do parents this case? "They begin to look for husbands for their daughters. No matter who the young man who is doing what, what happened to her daughter. The main thing - to marry to avoid the shame," - says human rights activist Oynihol Bobonazarova.
"Beaten and humiliated"
In Tajikistan, with support from international organizations are working several crisis centers. The main problem faced by the staff of these centers - a long-standing family conflicts and as a consequence - a serious psychological problems.
"Most of our clients - women. They call in moments of despair, and then are afraid to admit even the closest, they were forced to seek help on the side. Beaten and humiliated, they are forced to endure, as dependent on their husbands financially. As a rule, these women and girls early drop out of school, have no education, no profession. Call the police, they flatly refuse. Few cases that recognize the public - it is only those examples where women are treated in hospital with injuries or die from the beatings "- says the head of Kulyab Crisis Center Kurbongul Kosimova.
Tajik authorities are trying to solve the problem with teaching women. Representatives of the Ministry of Education go into villages and convince the local residents not to interfere with their studies daughters. In addition, the authorities intend to tighten measures against the families that keep children in school. However, according to an expert in matters of science and education Munira Inoyatova, the authorities set themselves unrealistic goals, seeking to change the situation in this area for several years.
"We need to change the mentality of people. Here is a great role to play clerics. But it's hard to say that the clergy and people are ready for such changes," - said the expert.